A (tiny) bit of Powershell..

Even though I was not there - the VI Toolkit lab, Lab 11 was highly popular and you can voice your opinion on that if you would like. Now Carter Shanklin was so kind to give me permission to publish the VI toolkit examples that were presented on the Hands-on Lab at this session. Luc Dekens , Hugo Peeters and Stephen Campbell also got an honorable mention in the document. This is more of a note to myself of how to perform common tasks with the VI Toolkit and a historical reference. It is a great list of examples collated in to one place. Of course credit goes to the team that made the lab such a success:
  • Aidan Dalgleish - Senior Consultant
  • Carter Shanklin - Product Manager, End User Enablement
  • Reg Hall – Senior Systems Engineer
  • Hardev Sanghera – Lead Partner, Systems Engineer
  • Yavor Boychev – VI Toolkit QA Lead
  • Andrey Anastasov – VI Toolkit Architect
So thank very much Carter - and of course the full PDF can be found here Get a listing of all VMs on all hosts. Get-VM Get a listing of all VMs on esx35-02.vitoolkit.local. Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local| Get-VM Get a listing of all VMs that reside in the “student-resourcepool-01” resource pool. Get-ResourcePool student-resourcepool-01 | Get-VM Create a new VM on esx35-02.vitoolkit.local. Give it 1 gigabyte of RAM and 10 megabytes of disk space. Call it StudentVm1. Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local | New-VM -Name "StudentVm1" ` -DiskMB 10 -MemoryMB 1024 Create 10 new VMs on esx35-02.vitoolkit.local. Give them all 1 gigabyte of RAM and 5 megabytes of disk space. Name the VMs student1 through student10. Foreach ($i in 1..10) {Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local | New-VM -Name "student$i” ` -DiskMB 5 -MemoryMB 1024} Reconfigure each VM to use 256 megabytes of RAM rather than its current memory setting. Get-VM | Set-VM -MemoryMB 256 –confirm:$false Reconfigure each VM to have 2 virtual CPUs rather than 1. Get-VM | Set-VM –NumCpu 2 –confirm:$false Power on all VMs of form student-vm-* Get-VM student-vm-* | Where { $_.PowerState –eq “PoweredOff”} | Start-VM Get a listing of all VMs that have connected CD-ROM drives. Get-VM | where {($_.CDDrives)[0].ConnectionState.Connected} Disconnect any connected CD-ROM drives. Get-VM | Get-CDDrive | Set-CDDrive -Connected $false ` –confirm:$false Get a listing of all VMs along with the sizes of their hard drives. Get-VM | select Name, @{ Name="DatastoreCapacityKB"; Expression = { $_.Harddisks | foreach { $_.CapacityKb }} } Get a listing of all VMs along with the datastores on which they reside. Get-Vm | select Name, @{ Name = "Datastore"; Expression = {$_ | Get-Datastore} } Get a listing of all available templates. Get-Template Get a listing of all available customization specifications. Get-OSCustomizationSpec Create a clone of the template, using the available customization specification. Deploy the template to the nas_system_datastore2 datastore. $template = Get-Template $spec = Get-OSCustomizationSpec New-VM -Name "vmFromTemplate" -VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local ` -Template $template -OSCustomizationSpec $spec ` -Datastore nas_system_datastore2 Create a new VM on esx35-02.vitoolkit.local, attaching it to the nas_student_datastore1 datastore. Give it 10 megabytes of disk. Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local| ` New-VM -Name "vmOnDatastore" -Datastore nas_student_datastore1 ` -diskmb 10 Create a new VM on esx35-02.vitoolkit.local, attaching it to the Internal network. Give it 10 megabytes of disk. Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local| ` New-VM -Name "vmOnNetwork" -NetworkName Internal ` -diskmb 10 List all network interfaces on the ESX host esx35-01.vitoolkit.local. Get-VMHost 'esx35-01.vitoolkit.local' | Get-VMHostNetwork | foreach { $_.PhysicalNic } List all network interfaces defined on all ESX hosts. Get-VMHost | foreach { Write-Host "`nNics at host $_ :" –ForegroundColor Yellow $_ | Get-VMHostNetwork | foreach { $_.PhysicalNic } } List available virtual switches on all hosts. Get-VMHost | Get-VirtualSwitch List available portgroups on all hosts. Get-VMHost | Get-VirtualSwitch | Get-VirtualPortGroup Find all network interfaces that are not currently used in a virtual switch on esx35-03.vitoolkit.local. $vmhost = Get-VMHost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local foreach ($pnic in $hostNetwork.PhysicalNic) { $switchesUsingPnic = Get-VirtualSwitch $vmHost | where { $_.Nic -ne $null -and $_.Nic -contains $pnic.DeviceName } if ($switchesUsingPnic -eq $null) { $pnic } } On esx35-03.vitoolkit.local, create a new virtual switch called “New Switch”. Assign 64 ports to the switch and assign two interfaces to the switch. $pnic = (Get-VMHostNetwork -VMHost ` 'esx35-03.vitoolkit.local').PhysicalNic[1] New-VirtualSwitch -VMHost 'esx35-03.vitoolkit.local' ` -Nic $pnic.DeviceName -NumPorts 64 -Name 'New Switch' Create a new portgroup named “New Group”. Create it on New Switch and give it a VLAN ID of 100. $switch = ` Get-VirtualSwitch -VMHost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local -Name 'New Switch' New-VirtualPortGroup ` -Name 'New Group' -VirtualSwitch $switch -VLanId 100 Create a new VM with a single network adapter attached to the New Group portgroup. New-VM -Name MyVM -VMHost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local ` -NetworkName 'New Group' -DiskMB 8 Move the VM you created to the External network. (Get-VM MyVM).NetworkAdapters[0] | ` Set-NetworkAdapter -NetworkName 'External' –confirm:$false Move student-vm-01 virtual machine to esx35-03.vitoolkit.local esx host. $vm01 = Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local | Get-Vm "student-vm-01" $vm01 | Get-NetworkAdapter | Set-NetworkAdapter ` -Connectedfalse -Confirm:$false $vm01 | Move-Vm -Destination esx35-03.vitoolkit.local Move student-vm-01 virtual machine back to esx35-02.vitoolkit.local esx host. $vm01 = Get-VMHost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local | Get-Vm "student-vm-01" $vm01 | Move-Vm -Destination esx35-02.vitoolkit.local Get a listing of all VMs and the datastores where they reside. Get-VM | Select Name, { $_ | Get-Datastore } Move student-vm-01, student-vm-02 and student-vm-03 from nas_student_datastore1 to nas_system_datastore1 Get-VM student-vm-01,student-vm-02,student-vm-03 | Move-Vm -datastore nas_system_datastore1 Move all powered off VMs from esx35-03.vitoolkit.local to esx35-02.vitoolkit.local. Get-vmhost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local | get-vm | where-object {$_.Powerstate -eq "PoweredOff"} | move-vm -destination esx35-02.vitoolkit.local Enable VMotion esx35-01.vitoolkit.local. Create VMKernels on the vswitch0 switch. The VMKernel IP for esx35-01 should be The netmask should be $vs = Get-VMHost esx35-01.vitoolkit.local | Get-VirtualSwitch –Name vswitch0 Get-VMHost esx35-01.vitoolkit.local | New-VMHostNetworkAdapter -PortGroup VMKernel -VirtualSwitch $vs ` -IP -SubnetMask –VmotionEnabled:$true Enable VMotion at the host level for esx35-01.vitoolkit.local. get-vmhost esx35-01.vitoolkit.local | set-vmhostadvancedconfiguration ` -Name Migrate.Enabled -Value 1 Ensure that VMotion is enabled. # When you run these commands you should see one line of output each. Get-VMHost esx35-01.vitoolkit.local | Get-VirtualPortGroup | Where { $_.Port } | Where { $_.Port[0].Type -eq "host" } List all datastores along with their capacity and free space. Get-vmhost | get-datastore An NFS datastore has been created at Add this datastore to esx35-02.vitoolkit.local and esx35-03.vitoolkit.local Call the datastore DS_NFS. new-datastore -nfs -vmhost esx35-03.vitoolkit.local ` -name NFS -path /mnt/shared/nfs1/student_nfs -nfshost An iSCSI datastore has been created at port 3260. Add this datastore to esx35- 02.vitoolkit.local and esx35-03.vitoolkit.local. Call it DS_iSCSI. # Get lunPath and create new storage $lunpath = Get-ScsiLun -VmHost (Get-VMHost esx35-02.vitoolkit.local) | where {$_.CanonicalName.StartsWith('vmhba32:0:7')} | Get-ScsiLunPath New-Datastore -Vmfs -VMHost $h -Path $lunpath.LunPath -Name DS_iSCSI Rescan storage on all hosts. Get-VMHost | Get-VMHostStorage -RescanAllHba List all SCSI LUNs defined on all hosts as well as their multipath policies. Get-VMHost | Get-ScsiLun List all SCSI LUN paths. Get-VMHost | Get-ScsiLun | Get-ScsiLunPath Display hard disk sizes for all available VMs. Get-VM | Get-HardDisk # Or! Get-VM | Select Name, @{Name = "CapacityKB"; Expression = {$_ | Get-HardDisk | foreach {$_.CapacityKB}}} Add a second hard disk to student-vm-03. Allocate 10Mb to the hard disk. Get-VM student-vm-03 | New-HardDisk -CapacityKB 10000 Create a new cluster named “New Cluster” with HA and DRS disabled. New-Cluster "New Cluster" -Location StudentLab Move all ESX hosts into New Cluster. Move-VMHost ESX* -Destination "New Cluster" Enable HA on New Cluster. When enabling HA, set admission control on the cluster. Set-Cluster "New Cluster" –HAAdmissionControlEnabled $true ` –confirm:$false Enable DRS on New Cluster. When enabling DRS, set the automation level to partially automated. Set-Cluster "New Cluster" -DrsAutomationLevel PartiallyAutomated ` -confirm:$false Change the DRS automation level of all VMs currently on esx35-01 to fully automated. Get-VM -Location "ESX35-01*" | Set-VM -DrsAutomationLevel FullyAutomated Change the HA restart priority of all VMs currently on esx35-02 to High. Get-VM -Location "ESX35-02*" | Set-VM -HARestartPriority High Try to move all hosts out of New Cluster. (will not work with Running VM's!) Move-VMHost ESX* -Destination "StudentLab" Suspend all running VMs on all hosts. Get-VM | Where { $_.PowerState –eq “PoweredOn” } | Suspend-VM –confirm:$false Put all hosts into maintenance mode. Get-VMHost ESX* | Set-VMHost -State Maintenance Move all hosts out of New Cluster. Move-VMHost ESX* -Destination "StudentLab" Take all hosts out of maintenance mode. Get-VMHost ESX* | Set-VMHost -State Connected Resume all suspended VMs. Get-VM | Where { $_.PowerState –eq “Suspended” } | Start-VM Create new snapshots of all VMs. Get-VM student-vm*| New-Snapshot -Name Snapshot1 Find VM snapshots “Snapshot1” and display VM Name and Snapshot Name Get-VM | Get-Snapshot -Name Snapshot1 | Select VM, Name Start VMs, as memory state Snapshot only available for Powered On VMs Get-VM student-vm* | Start-VM # To save memory state when creating snapshots use the –Memory option. Revert all VMs to the state they were in before taking the snapshot. Get-VM student-vm* | foreach {$_ | Set-VM -Snapshot (Get-Snapshot -VM $_ -Name Snapshot2) -Confirm:$false } Get a listing of all snapshots, including the time when they were created. Get-VM | Get-Snapshot | Select VM, Name, Created Remove all snapshots older than 1 week. Get-VM | Get-Snapshot | where {$_.Created -le (Get-Date).AddDays(-7)} | Remove-Snapshot –confirm:$false Get all processes running in win2k3-student{n}. *Where n is your student number $hostCred = Get-Credential $guestCred = Get-Credential $vmName = “win2k3-student{n}” Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred Get-Process # Note: The remaining solutions assume these variables are defined! List all services running inside win2k3-student{n}. Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred Get-Service Restart the DHCP service within win2k3-student{n}. Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred “Get-Service Dhcp | Restart-Service ` -force” List the names of all available eventlogs available within win2k3-student{n}. Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred “Get-EventLog –list” Retrieve all security events from win2k3-student{n}. Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred “Get-EventLog Security” Retrieve all application events from win2k3-student{n} of type Information. Get-VM $vmName | Invoke-VMScript –HostCredential $hostCred ` -GuestCredential $guestCred ` “Get-EventLog Application | Where { `$_.EntryType –eq ` ‘Information’ }” Determine the version of VMware Tools installed on a VM. $vm = Get-VM Win2k3-01.vitoolkit.local $vmView = $vm | Get-View $vmView.Config.Tools.ToolsVersion Change the amount of memory assigned to a VM. $vm = Get-VM Win2k3-01.vitoolkit.local $vmView = $vm | Get-View $spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec $spec.MemoryMB = 2048 $vmView.ReconfigVM($spec) Set per-VM CPU and memory reservations. $vm = Get-VM Win2k3-01.vitoolkit.local $vmView = $vm | Get-View $cpuAllocationInfo = New-Object VMware.Vim.ResourceAllocationInfo $cpuAllocationInfo.shares = “High” $cpuAllocationInfo.reservation = 2000 $memAllocationInfo = New-Object VMware.Vim.ResourceAllocationInfo $memAllocationInfo.shares = “High” $memAllocationInfo.reservation = 2kb $configSpec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec $configSpec.cpuAllocation = $cpuAllocationInfo $configSpec.memoryAllocation = $memAllocationInfo $vmView.ReconfigVM($configSpec) Create a virtual switch with custom teaming properties. $networkView = Get-VMHost | Get-VMHostNetwork | Get-View $switch = $networkView.NetworkInfo.Vswitch | Where { $_.Name –eq “New Switch” } $spec = $switch.spec $spec.policy.nicTeaming.policy = "loadbalance_ip" $view.UpdateVirtualSwitch($switch.Name, $spec) Manage licenses. # The ScheduledTaskManager is in the Service Instance. $si = get-view ServiceInstance $scheduledTaskManager = Get-View $si.Content.ScheduledTaskManager # We need to identify the VM and the host where it will be powered on. $vmView = Get-VM PowerOnTest | Get-View $esxView = Get-VMHost esx35-01.vitoolkit.local | Get-View # Now we construct the task argument. $arg = New-Object VMware.Vim.MethodActionArgument $arg.Value = $esxview.MoRef $action = New-Object VMware.Vim.MethodAction $action.Argument = $arg $action.Name = "PowerOnVM_Task" $scheduler = new-object VMware.Vim.OnceTaskScheduler $scheduler.runat = (get-date).addminutes(5) $task = New-Object VMware.Vim.ScheduledTaskSpec $task.Action = $action $task.Description = "Start a VM with a scheduled task." $task.Enabled = $true $task.Name = "Power On Virtual Machine" $task.Scheduler = $scheduler $scheduledTaskManager.CreateScheduledTask($vmView.MoRef, $task) Create functions to make automation easy. # Part 1. # Define our reusable function. function Set-VMCpuReservation { param ($vm, $shares, $reservation) $vmView = $vm | Get-View $allocationInfo = New-Object VMware.Vim.ResourceAllocationInfo $allocationInfo.shares = “High” $allocationInfo.reservation = 2000 $configSpec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec $configSpec.cpuAllocation = $allocationInfo $vmView.ReconfigVM($configSpec) }